Sunday, October 27, 2019

What Is The Concept Of Electromagnetic Conduction? Essay

What Is The Concept Of Electromagnetic Conduction? Essay The concept of electromagnetic induction was discovered simultaneously in 1831 by Faraday in London and Joseph Henry, an American scientist working in New York that same year. Faradays law describes electromagnetic induction, whereby an electric field is induced, or generated by a changing magnetic field.. but Faraday is credited for the law since he published his work first An emf can be induced in many ways-for instance, by moving a closed loop of wire into a region where a magnetic field exists. The results of these experiments led to a very basic and important law of lectromagnetism known as Faradays law of induction. This law states that the magnitude of the emf induced in a circuit equals to the time rate of change of the magnetic flux through the circuit. With the treatment of Faradays law, we complete our introduction to the fundamental laws of electromagnetism. These laws can be explained in a set of four equations known as Maxwells equations. Together with the Lorentz force law, they represent a complete theory for describing the interaction of charged objects. Maxwells equations relate electric and magnetic fields to each other and to their ultimate source, namely, electric charges. To see how an emf can be induced by a changing magnetic field, let us consider a loop of wire connected to a galvanometer. When a magnet is moved toward the loop, the galvanometer needle deflects in one direction,arbitrarily. When we take magnet away from the loop, the needle deflects in the direction . When the magnet is held stationary relative to the loop, no deflection take place. Finally, if the magnet is held stationary and the loop is moved either toward or away from it, the needle deflects. From these observations, we observe that the loop knows that the magnet is moving relative to it because it experiences a change in magnetic field. Thus, it seems that a relationship exists between current and changing magnetic field. Faradays Law: an Explanation Listed below are the two mathematical forms of Faradays Law: the point or differential form, and the integral form. Although the two forms appear highly distinct, they mean exactly the same thing and can be used interchangeably in calculations. The point form equation can be transformed to the integral form equation and vice versa by the application of a single vector calculus theorem 1. Although synonymous, the two forms of the law lend themselves to different conceptual understanding depending on the physical context. Physicists and electrical engineers often like to state Faradays Law in the more compact point form, but prefer using the integral form for calculations since it is more physically intuitive. Avoiding the drudgery imposed by attempting to understand the sundry mathematical symbols, Faradays law says that a time-varying magnetic field induces an electric field. More formally, here is the essence of Faradays Law: The sum of all electric field components tangent to a closed spatial path, or loop, is equal to the negative time-rate of change of the magnetic flux through the surface bounded by that path. First, lets understand what is meant by flux. Imagine water flowing through a pipe in which a screen spans the cross-section . The flow of water across the screen can be considered flux. Similarly, magnetic flux refers to a magnetic field intersecting a surface. Now imagine that, as the water flows through the creen in the pipe, its rate of flow increases, i.e. it accelerates. This means that the time-rate of change of the water flow is positive relative to the direction of flow. On the other hand, if the flow rate decreases, then this time-rate of change is negative with respect to the direction of flow. The same applies to the magnetic flux through a surface: if its magnitude is increasing with respect to the fields direction, then the time-rate of change is positive; otherwise, it is negative. In this figure, there is a changing magnetic field, represented by the red arrow coming out of the page. Surrounding this changing magnetic field (and flux) is an arbitrary closed path along which are marked several tangential electric field components. The sum of these components, relatively speaking, is what is indicated by the left sides of the equations in table 1. Faradays Law equates the two last concepts: the total electric field summed around a closed path (the left side of the equation) is equal to the time-rate of change of the magnetic flux through the surface bounded by that path (the right side of the equation). Physically, this means a time-changing magnetic flux gives rise to an electric field in its neighbourhood. Recall from our earlier discussion that there must be an electric potential, or voltage, associated with every electric field. Thus our understanding of Faradays law can be extended to say that a time-variant magnetic field induces an electric potential or voltage. Faradays Law: Consequences Faradays Law is so fundamental to the workings of our universe that if the truths it conveys were not so, it is difficult to imagine how the universe as we know it would be different. One could say that electromagnetic waves wouldnt exist, and without these, perhaps, the universe wouldnt either. Or, perhaps, life would continue, but in a dramatically different way than what we experience. But this is a discussion best left for philosophers. What we do know for certain is that mankinds understanding of these laws has had a colossal impact on how we live in our world today: various inventions and technologies that incorporate Faradays Law have revolutionised mankinds living for well more than a century. Faraday law describe how electromagnetic (EM) waves are generated and, with the help of two other electromagnetics equations, propagated through various media. EM waves are essential to our existence and to our quality of life. EM waves of many different frequencies are responsible for myriads of different phenomena: low frequency EM waves are used for radio transmissions and television broadcasts; low- to mid frequency microwaves are used in satellite and mobile communications and in microwave ovens; mid-frequency infrared radiation from the sun heats our planet; mid-frequency visible light waves allow us to see and makes plant and animal life on earth possible; mid-frequency ultraviolet radiation is enjoyed by tanning sunbathers; high frequency x-rays are used in medical diagnostic equipment and in materials analysis; and ultra-high frequency gamma radiation is involved in subatomic phenomena Now let us describe an experiment conducted by Faraday. A primary coil is connected to a switch and a battery. The coil is wrapped around a ring, and a current in the coil produces a magnetic field when the switch is closed. A secondary coil also is wrapped around the ring and is connected to a galvanometer. No battery is present in the secondary circuit, and the secondary coil is not connected to the primary coil. Any current detected in the secondary circuit must be induced by some external agent. Initially, we might guess that no current is ever detected in the secondary circuit. However, something quite amazing happens when the switch in the primary circuit is either suddenly closed or suddenly opened. At the instant the switch is closed, the galvanometer needle deflects in one direction and then returns to zero. At the instant the switch is opened, the needle deflects in the opposite direction and again returns to zero. Finally, the galvanometer reads zero when there is either a steady current or no current in the primary circuit. Th e key to under-standing what happens in this experiment is to first note that when the switch is closed, the current in the primary circuit produces a magnetic field in the region of the circuit, and it is this magnetic field that penetrates the secondary circuit. Furthermore, when the switch is closed, the magnetic field produced by the current in the primary circuit changes from zero to some value over some finite time, and it is this changing field that induces a current in the secondary circuit.As a result of these observations, Faraday concluded that an electric current can be induced in a circuit (the secondary circuit in our setup) by a changing magnetic field. The induced current exists for only a short time while the magnetic field through the secondary coil is changing. Once the magnetic field reaches a steady value, the current in the secondary coil disappears. In effect, the secondary circuit behaves as though a source of emf were connected to it for a short time. It is customary to say that an induced emf is produced in the secondary circuit by the changing magnetic field. The experiments shown in Figures 31.1 and 31.2 have one thing in common: In each case, an emf is induced in the circuit when the magnetic flux through the circuit changes with time. In general, The emf induced in a circuit is directly proportional to the time rate of change of the magnetic flux through the circuit. Where is the magnetic flux through the circuit (see Section 30.5). If the circuit is a coil consisting of N loops all of the same area and if _B is the flux through one loop, an emf is induced in every loop; thus, the total induced emf in the coil is given by the expression. The negative sign in Equations 1 and 2 is of important physical significance. Suppose that a loop enclosing an area A lies in a uniform magnetic field B. From this expression, we see that an emf can be induced in the circuit in several ways: The magnitude of B can vary with time. The area covered by the loop can vary with time. The angle _ between B and the normal to the loop can vary with time. Any combination of the above the three can occur. Faradays law as two different phenomena Some physicists have remarked that Faradays law is a single equation describing two different phenomena: The motional EMF generated by a magnetic force on a moving wire, and the transformer EMF generated by an electric force due to a changing magnetic field. James Clerk Maxwell drew attention to this fact in his 1861 paper On Physical Lines of Force. In the latter half of part II of that paper, Maxwell gives a separate physical explanation for each of the two phenomena. So the flux rule that the emf in a circuit is equal to the rate of change of the magnetic flux passes through the circuit applies whether the flux changes because the field changes or because the circuit moves (or both). Yet in our explanation of the rule we have used two completely distinct laws for the two cases. Applications of Faradays Law The ground fault interrupter (GFI) is an interesting safety device that protects electrical appliances against electric shock. Its operation makes use of Faradays law. In the GFI wire 1 leads from the wall outlet to the appliance to be protected, and wire 2 leads from the appliance back to the wall outlet. An iron ring surrounds the two wires, and a sensing coil is wrapped around part of the ring. Because the currents in the wires are in opposite directions, the net magnetic flux through the sensing coil due to the currents is zero. However, if the return current in wire 2 changes, the net magnetic flux through the sensing coil is no longer zero. (This can happen, for example, if the appliance gets wet, enabling current to leak to ground.) Because household current is alternating (meaning that its direction keeps reversing), the magnetic flux through the sensing coil changes with time, inducing an emf in the coil. This induced emf is used to trigger a circuit breaker, which stops the current before it is able to reach a harmful level. Another interesting application of Faradays law is the producing sound in an electric guitar. The coil in this case, called the pickup coil , is placed near the vibrating guitar string, which is made of a metal that can be magnetized. A permanent magnet inside the coil magnetizes the portion of the string nearest the coil. When the string vibrates at some frequency, its magnetized segment produces a changing magnetic flux through the coil. The changing flux induces an emf in the coil that is fed to an amplifier. The output of the amplifier is sent to the speakers, which produce the sound waves we hear. (a) In an electric guitar, a vibrating string induces an emf in a pickup coil. (b) The circles beneath the metallic strings of this electric guitar detect the notes being played and send this information through an amplifier and into speakers. Applications of electromagnetic induction that has had a tremendous impact on the way the society functions is electric power generation. The electric generator (figure 7) uses electromagnetic induction by rotating windings (loops of wire) in a magnetic field. As the windings rotate through the field, a time-varying flux is incident across them, resulting in an induced voltage. Are Monarchies More Stable Than Republics? Are Monarchies More Stable Than Republics? ISRAA EMAD Are monarchies more stable than republics in the Middle East? Many of the political observers stood bewildered and astonished against how to explain the ability and solidarity of the Arab Monarchs, Emirs and Sultans to ride out and stand against the storm and the tide of the Arab Spring Revolutions that have swept the Arab Countries during the past three years. For many of them, the fetch out answer to this shear dilemma has to be a matter related to the typology of the regime itself. The Arab Monarchs possess a unique cultural and hereditary legitimacy entailed their solidarity and stability rooted in the grounds of better governmental performance. This can help us understand the variation between two types of monarchies prevailing in the Arab World; the dynastic one applicable in the GCC countries and the Individual one as in the case of both Morocco and Jordan (Gause, 2013) No Arab Monarchy has been toppled during the Arab Uprising Revolutions save the Kingdom of Bahrain. These dynastic regimes survived for decades against the political storms that have blown away the republican neighboring states. Claims that monarchies in the ME region are inherently more solid and stable or on the other hand, their fall and collapse are only a matter of years away misinterpret the overwhelming situation justifiably as the Arab monarchies are there to stay. Typology of Regimes : Political scientists classify regimes according to their types; Monarchy as in case of the Sultanate of Brunei and Saudi Arabia, totalitarian dictatorship as in the case of the Nazi of Germany and Qaddafi of Libya, Aristocracy as in the ancient Sparta, Democracy as in ancient Athens and United states, anarchy as in recent Somalia, Authoritarian as in the case of Egypt and China and Constitutional as in the case of united kingdom and Japan (Linz, 2000). Arab Spring Shakes Regimes prevailing in the ME: What were called the Arab Spring Revolutions has erupted in several Arab countries, commencing with Tunisia, then crawling to touch Egypt, Libya, Yemen and strikes Syria, leading to the collapse of the republican regimes produced by the revolutionary legitimacy. Accordingly, a significant and remarkable phenomenon has appeared, which should be studied, analyzed and considered deliberately and objectively. Such phenomenon is represented in fact that the Arab monarchy regimes, with its constitutional legitimacy, withstood, even if for a period of time, against the waves and tides of the Arab Spring Revolutions compared to the notorious collapse of republican regimes. The republican regimes could not withstand it terms of its revolutionary legitimacy; alleged fifty years earlier, to resist such revolutions. One should ask what are the reasons beyond such phenomenon? (Al Abdeh, 2012). The most important reason this domino phenomenon is represented in the fact that the constitutional legitimacy upon which the monarchy regimes grounded their superstructures is emerged from societal, religious and historical heritage of the royal families as in the case in Jordan and Morocco. Moreover, the genealogy of these families is ascribed to the Prophet Mohammad (Peace Be upon Him). Such families have not risen to power through the military barracks or conferences. Additionally, these families have not usurped the power through coup detat or assassinations as was the case with most republican regimes that rule the Arab world since a half of century (Kurzman, 2004). The second reason is that the Arab monarchies have stable semi-democratic regimes resulting from constitutional and institutional heritage that is not owned by the dictatorial, totalitarian and absolute republics of fear that ruled the countries in the name of the leading party and the absolute leader. These dictatorial regimes have never recognized the constitution, elections or parliament except for the last decades (Stavestrand, 2013). Monarchy vs Republican Stability Paradigm On the contrary, the monarchy regimes rely on a constitutional and institutional heritage represented in old and permanent constitutions and parliaments with Bourgeoisie political elites that are educated and aware. Under such regimes, the power is peacefully circulated through elections, while the Monarch shall be non-responsible and have all religious and ethnic diversities in the societies of such countries. Accordingly, the peoples of such countries have peaceful and democratic mechanisms for reform; including the right to protest and exercise pressures on the government calling for cabinet reshuffle. These peoples do not need to overthrow such regimes leading to a constitutional vacuum that cannot serve their countries interests and leads to a great chaos and anarchy. Republican regimes Disappointing the youth generation : The third reason lies in the fact that the Arab youths who lived under the republican regimes suffering their oppression and tyranny have hated and fed up with such regimes. On the contrary, such youths and their counterparts that lived under the monarchy regimes tend to the monarchy ones and watch and observe their stability, openness and democracy, not only within the Arab world, but also all over the world. These youths have found that everything is good with these monarchy regimes compared to what they have felt and found under the totalitarian militarized republics of fear and agony. As for the generations that lived under the monarchy and republican regimes in some Arab countries, they have realized for a long period the big difference between the days of Monarchs and princes in comparison with the rule of military who proved to be amateurs and youngsters in terms of politics (Sean, April 2012). The fourth reason is represented in the fact that the Arab societies are mostly parental thus the monarchy regimes are more consistent with their social nature. Under the monarchy regime, there is the Monarch, who is the comprehensive symbol for all people. The republican regimes are, unlike, unfamiliar with the Arab societies and have not proven their success up to date; whatever their supporters introduce any justification that cannot convince even an infant. The unfamiliarity is attributed to the fact the president, in the republican regime, is usually unknown and unqualified amateur of politics. Such a president comes to the power through a military coup or a party and when he/she rise to the power, the same changes into a dictator and seeks to stay in power for life in spite of the fact that such a president does not come to power through the satisfaction and consent of people. Monarchies in the ME and Reform : The last reason lies in the fact that the possibility of reform and change that is available for the Arab Monarchy regimes are absent inside their republican counterparts. The mechanisms of power and constitutional establishments by which the monarch regimes enjoy allow the people to express opinion and thus criticizing corruption and wrong actions and calling for bringing about the change without being subject to punishment. Moreover, the nature of the democratic regime and power rotation between the parties creates a state of competition for the interest of citizen hoping that these parties be reelected. Under the republican regimes, nevertheless, the criticizing and calling for change are regarded as prohibited, treason and assault against the sacred leader and his/her absolute leading party. Hence, there are no elections to overthrow such leaders and in case there are any elections, they are reelected by 99% and thus, they are not obliged to make reforms and offer service to the citizen, as they do not fear of the latter who has no mechanism for expression and change (Halpern, 1993). Conclusion: The generation of spring revolutions in Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Yemen and Libya, who rushed inattentively, without awareness or thinking, after the military machine and their totalitarian revolutionary parties, have come now to realize how awful are the impacts and effects of the catastrophe and the disgusting crime they have committed fifty years earlier against themselves, their sons and grandsons generation after a generation as they have opened their eyes to find themselves under dictatorial totalitarian republics of fear, especially as they have found out that the monarchy regimes that were called the Vanishing Ones are still alive, vital and dominating, while their revolutionary publics encouraged, promoted and propagated by their leaders and parties have vanished and come to end. In fact, the remarkable governmental and constitutional reforms recently carried out by some Monarchs, like Abdullah II; the reigning king of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, and Mohammed the VI‎, the present King of Morocco, including cabinet reshuffle and making essential constitutional amendments, place confirmation on the fact that the Arab monarchy regimes are more stable and persistent compared to their republican counterparts that collapsed in the wave of the first challenge as a result of the domino effect of the arising Arab Spring revolutions. Bibliography : 01/Al-HYPERLINK, M. (Dec. 2012) The Monarchical Exception While republican dictators fell, Arab monarchies remain stable, Some reflections on the very different fates of Arab Nasserite-type republics and Arab monarchies. 02/Gause, G. (2013) Kings for all Seasons, How the Middle East monarchies survived and persisted the Arab Spring Revolutions. Brookings Center Number 8, September 2013 03/Kurzman C., (2004) The Islamic Revolution in Iran Harvard University Press, 2004, p. 121. 04/Linz, J. (2000) Totalitarian vs Authoritarian Regimes 01/01/2000 Lynne Rienner Publishers 05/Sean, L. (April 2012), Understanding the Monarchial Resilience During the Arab Spring revolutions. 06/Stavestrand, E. (2013) Freedom and Stability in Contemporary Monarchies, Testing the Theory of Monarchical Exceptionalism. Department of Comparative Politics, University of Bergen Spring 2013 Are Happy Employees More Productive? Are Happy Employees More Productive? Happy employees are productive employees. Happy employees are not productive employees. The topic of employee attitude and job attitude has always been a debatable and confused topic among practitioners even though during periods when employees are being referred to as valuable asset for organizational success and competitiveness. Employees have attitudes or viewpoints about many aspects of their jobs, their careers, and their organizations. However, from the perspective of research and practice, the most focal employee attitude is job satisfaction. The most-used research definition of job satisfaction is by Locke (1976), who described it as a state which is enjoyable or positive that results from the appraisal of ones job or job experiences. Implicit in Lockes definition is the importance of both affect, or feeling, and cognition, or thinking. Organizations are social systems where human resources are the most important factors for effectiveness and efficiency. In order to achieve their goals and objectives organizations require efficient managers and employees. Without their personnel efforts and commitment success cannot be achieved by these organizations. Job satisfaction is critical to retaining and attracting well-qualified personnel. Employee job satisfaction can be described as an attitude that employees have about their organization and job. Methodologically, it can be said that job satisfaction is an employees emotional response which can be compared between actual outcomes and desired outcomes (Mosadeghrad, 2003b). One of the greatest challenge facing service organizations is possibly pursue for quality service. (Sohal, 1994). Thus finding ways for maintaining and improving service quality is necessary. (Bitner et al., 1994). In management employee attitude and reactions to organizational change are associated with departmental performance and this considered as an important assumption. In a service business, customer satisfaction is a critical performance indicator along with measures of unit productivity and administrative effectiveness. In the recent years it has been noticed that the effects of many human resource development factors on business performance has been extensively discussed in business research literature. In service industries, where services are often characterized by an encounter between service providers and customers, the quality and capability of the service providers have a direct, significant effect on the service delivery process and customer satisfaction. The initial interaction, having a great influence on how customers evaluate the service quality, has been better known as the moment of truth as customers start to form their opinion and expectation of the service delivery experience (Normann, 1984). This brief encounter can be vital in achieving a reputation for higher quality and continuous business. PERFORMANCE What is performance? Performance is the result of achieving organizational objectives; a yardstick of success. Porter (1980) asserts that the basis of above average performance in the long run is sustainable competitive advantage. Measuring performance Performance measurement is necessary because it enables firms to take a snapshot of current activity to assess their progress and help refocus strategy. These snapshots must always be compared against others both inside and outside the firm in the following three  main ways: (1) Past performance: recorded successes and achievements in the past. (2) Benchmarking: contrasting performance against that of other firms. (3) Goals: comparing achievements with strategic aspirations and expectations. The problems arise in deciding the criteria by which performance should be measured. Our customers judge quality on a range of objective and subjective issues which are often difficult to pin down. Employee attitude, for example, was ranked as the most important critical success factor to hotel companies, but is difficult to measure accurately. One answer is the balanced scorecard which is a reporting system which shows financial performance for actions already implemented as well as measures that drive performance in the future. These may be viewed in four perspectives as shown in Figure 2: customer perspective financial innovation and learning perspective internal perspective Customer satisfaction Customer satisfaction is related to customer loyalty Service providers are expected to increase their service value over time because customers today are very knowledgeable in seeking out new service alternatives and will defect if they are just merely satisfied. Very satisfied customers were found to be six times more likely to repurchase than those who were just satisfied ( Jones and Sasser, 1995). Other studies, such as Gummesson (1993) and Storbacka et al. (1994), also discussed the link between satisfaction and loyalty. Job satisfaction and job performance The study of the link between job satisfaction and job performance has a controversial history. The Hawthorne studies, conducted in the 1930s, are often credited with making researchers aware of the effects of employee attitudes on performance. Shortly after the Hawthorne studies, researchers began taking a critical look at the notion that a happy worker is a productive worker. Most of the earlier reviews of the literature suggested a weak and somewhat inconsistent relationship between job satisfaction and performance. However, further research does not agree with this conclusion. Organ (1988) suggests that the failure to find a strong relationship between job satisfaction and performance is due to the narrow means often used to define job performance. Organ argued that when performance is defined to include important behaviors not generally reflected in performance appraisals, such as organizational citizenship behaviors, its relationship with job satisfaction improves. In addition, in a more recent and comprehensive review of 301 studies, Judge, Thoresen, Bono, and Patton (2001) found that when the correlations are appropriately corrected (for sampling and measurement errors), the average correlation between job satisfaction and job performance is a higher .30. In addition, the link between job satisfaction and performance was found to be even higher for complex (e.g., professional) jobs than for less complex jobs. Thus, contrary to earlier reviews, it does appear that job satisfaction is, in fact, predictive of performance, and the relationship is even stronger for professional jobs. Relationships between attitudes, performance and customer satisfaction Past research has found positive but weak relationships between employees job-related attitudes and performance (Iaffaldano and Muchinsky 1990 ). Recent research has included customer satisfaction as a correlate of employee attitudes and performance, stressing the importance of quality service to organizational achievement (Wiley 1990, Zeithaml et al., 1985). In todays competitive marketplace, organization effectiveness depends on understanding what customers value and communicating this understanding to employees in the form of employee-performance goals and expectations. ( Crom 1994, Heskett et al.,1994) In another study of relationships between organizational performance, customer satisfaction, and employee attitudes, (Wiley 1990) studied data from over 200 retail stores. He found that, overall, those stores most favourably described by employees were those most favourably described by customers. In particular, customer satisfaction ratings were strongly and positively related to employees descriptions of key aspects of their working environment, especially working conditions, minimum obstacles to accomplishing their work, and a strong sense that supervisors and co-workers stress customer service. A number of employee attitude dimensions were related to customer satisfaction. One such employee attitudinal dimension was effective communication. Thus this study concerns examining relationships between employee attitudes, performance, and customer satisfaction over time. The goal is to determine the extent to which employee attitudes distinguish between departments and the extent to which these differences are associated with productivity, administrative effectiveness, and customer satisfaction. In general, we hypothesize that work groups differ in employee attitudes and that these differences relate to recently achieved performance and customer satisfaction and also predict future performance and customer satisfaction. Defining attitude Secord and Beckman (1969, p. 167) defined attitudes as an individuals feelings, judgment and predispositions which helps to behave in accordance to his environment. Arnold et al. (1995) indicated that attitudes reflect a persons tendency to feel, think or behave in a positive or negative manner towards the object of the attitude. According to Elizur and Guttman (1976), attitudes toward change in general consist of a persons cognitions about change, affective reactions to change, and behavioral tendency toward change. Positive attitudes to change were found to be vital in achieving organizational goals and in succeeding in change programmes (Eby et al., 2000; Martin, 1998; Kotter, 1996; Gilmore and Barnett, 1992). Indicators of employee attitude: The concept of the employees attitudes encompasses a wide range of organizational phenomena (Loscocco and Roschelle, 1991). However, the most significant aspect of this study is the view that employees attitudes are the extent to which people of the organization are able to meet the essential individual needs through their experience to give better performance. There are various employees attitudes that have been selected for inclusion in this study and they will be discussed further. Job satisfaction: The first major cause that will be addressed is job satisfaction. In general, HR practitioners recognize the value of the work condition as a cause of employee attitudes, and it is an area HR can help influence through organizational programs and management practices. In addition, one of the most important areas of the work situation to influence job satisfaction the work itself is often overlooked by practitioners when addressing job satisfaction. Currie (2001) suggests that satisfaction is linked to level to which an individual is satisfied with terms and conditions of employment and the factors relates to the physical work environment. For example, an employee may be satisfied with its pay and their relationship with their peers at work or are satisfied with company policy. Job satisfaction is generally known as a versatile construct which encompasses employee feelings about a range of both intrinsic and extrinsic job elements. It includes important aspects of satisfaction related to pay, benefits, promotion, work conditions, supervision, organizational practices and relationships with co-workers (Misener et al., 1996). As stated, the work situation also matters in terms of job satisfaction and organization impact. Contrary to some commonly held practitioner beliefs, the most notable situational influence on job satisfaction is the nature of the work itself-often called intrinsic job characteristics. Research studies across many years, organizations, and types of jobs indicate that employees give more importance to the nature of the work itself when asked to evaluate different facets of their job such as supervision, pay, promotion opportunities, coworkers, and so forth. (Judge Church, 2000; Jurgensen, 1978). This is not to say that good salary or effective supervision is not important but rather much more consideration should be given to job satisfaction by ensuring that work is interesting and challenging as possible. Of all the main criteria of job satisfaction the works nature involves job challenge, autonomy, variety and scope with other key results like employee retention. (e.g., Fried Ferris, 1987; Parisi Weiner, 1999; Weiner, 2000). Thus, to understand what causes people to be satisfied with their jobs, the nature of the work itself is one of the first places for practitioners to focus on. Employee satisfaction: Employee satisfaction is often referred to as job satisfaction. This is to say that employee needs and wants are satisfied when they perceive certain rewards from the organization, including compensation, promotion, recognition, development, and meaningful work, meet or exceed their expectation (Hackman and Oldham, 1980). The next general point to look at is the notion of wellbeing at work, which (Peccei, 2004) suggests concern an overall sense of happiness, physical and mental health of the workforce. (Currie, 2001). However Warr (2002) argues that job-related wellbeing refers to peoples satisfaction with their jobs in terms of facets like pay, colleagues, supervisors, working conditions, job security, training opportunities, involvement, team working and the nature of the work undertaken. Among determinants of job satisfaction, leadership is viewed as an important predictor and plays a central role. leadership style Among the different factors of job satisfaction, leadership is viewed as an important predictor and plays a central role. Leadership is a management function, which is mostly aimed at people and social interaction, as well as motivating people so that they will work towards achieving organisations goals. (Skansi, 2000). Organization believes that their success is in achieving its goals and objectives and this depends on the managers and their leadership style. By adopting the needed leadership style managers can influence employee job satisfaction, commitment and productivity. Leadership style can be categorized as a variety of managerial attitudes, behaviors, characteristics and skills based on individual and organizational values. (Mosadeghrad, 2003b). It is the ability of the leader to motivate employees do perform to the maximum and is also the extent to which management respects workers, operates with honesty and integrity, promotes efficiency, and has open lines of communication with employees (Aronson et al., 2003). Leadership styles comprises of autocratic, bureaucratic, laissez-faire, charismatic, democratic, participative, situational, transactional, and transformational leadership (Mosadeghrad 2003b, 2004). If can be noticed that it is not that a certain style of leadership should necessary result in successful organizational behavior. There is need of different styles for different situations and leaders should know which approach to adopt. A leader may have the skills to act effectively in a particular situation but may not able to perform so in another context. A lot of research stem from research on transformational and charismatic leadership, which have been found to positively affect followers performance and attitudes (Bass and Avolio, 1993 and Shamir et al., 1993). According to Bass (1990, p. 21), transformational leadership takes place when leaders expand and promote the interests of their employees, when they create awareness and acceptance of the purposes and mission of the group, and when they encourage their employees to work towards the benefit of the group and not for their own self interest. Howell and Frost (1989) found that individuals working under a charismatic leader had higher task performance, task satisfaction, and lower role conflict. Employee commitment The concept of organisational commitment refers to a persons affective reactions to characteristics of his employing organization. (Cook and Wall, 1980) Commitment is an internalised employee belief, often associated with soft HRM and a high-trust organisational culture (Mathews and Shepherd, 2002) and is frequently associated with an exchange relationship between the employer and employee. From the point of view of employees, they commit to an organization in return for certain rewards, which can be extrinsic (salary) and intrinsic (belonging, job satisfaction). Legge (1995) suggests that the attitude conceptualization suggests that dedicated employees have confidence on the organisations goals and values, show enthusiasm to put maximum effort and have a strong will to stay with the organization. As such, affective commitment is viewed as an employees positive attachment to the employing organisation and a willingness to contribute towards the attainment of organisational goals (Mowday et al., 1979). It is argued that commitment often establishes an exchange relationship in which individuals attach themselves to the organization in return for certain rewards from the organization (Buchanan, 1974). People join organizations with certain needs, skills, expectations and they hope to find a work environment where they can use their abilities and satisfy their needs. When an organization can provide these opportunities, the likelihood of increasing commitment is increased. It is obvious that this exchange doesnt mean exploitation of employees. Commitment can be characterized by at least three related factors; a strong acceptance of the organizations values and goals, a willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization and a strong desire to maintain membership in the organization. Other research also indicated that organizational commitment is a better predictor of behavioral intentions than job satisfaction within a change context (Iverson, 1996; Iverson and Roy, 1994). Employees with high organizational commitment are more willing to put more effort in a change project and, therefore, it is more likely to develop positive attitudes towards organizational change (Iverson, 1996; Guest, 1987). It is in the interests of employers to find means of increasing employee commitment. High levels of organizational commitment lead to several favorable organizational outcomes. These include increased attention to safety practices, increased attendance, fewer grievance filings, larger profit margins, and higher customer satisfactions scores (Thompson, 1996), increased organizational effectiveness (Leung, 1997; Ostroff, 1992), more frequent organizational citizenship behaviors (Mayer Schoorman, 1992), higher productivity, lower scrap rates, and reduced turnover (Arthur, 1994), improved customer contract retention (Tornow Wiley, 1991), long-term profitability and shareholder value  (Kravetz, 1991) and higher customer satisfaction (Wiley, 1991; Pugh et al, 2002, Terzo,  2005). Furthermore, employee satisfaction has been positively correlated to service quality, which was then linked to increased customer satisfaction (Pugh et al., 2002). Customer satisfaction has been linked with the financial performance of the company, suggesting that employee satisfaction is linked to financial performance (Terzo, 2005). Further research has shown that satisfied employees have a positive impact on the companys revenues and profits (Jakobson Rauch, 2005). Different variables from employees all link to the customer, which links to the companys profitability and revenue growth (Pugh et al., 2002). Employee voice has been viewed as an aspect of high commitment HRM, and it is considered essential that workers should have the opportunity to express their grievances openly and independently, in addition to being able to contribute to management decision making on task-related issues (Gould-Williams, 2004). Employee involvement and information sharing is another essential component of the high commitment paradigm. Open communication about business matters ensures workers are informed about organizational issues and conveys a symbolic and substantive message that they are to be trusted in an open and positive manner (Marchington and Wilkinson, 2005). Thus it can be said that business success requires more than just satisfied and loyal employees. Instead, it demands the kind of employees who are willing to serve as advocates for the organisation, i.e. committed employees. So, employee commitment represents employee dedication to help the company to achieve its goals. It includes manifests like dedication to doing work of high quality, commitment to resolving customers problems, the investment of adequate time and effort in the work and the will to recommend the companys products and services. Job involvement Job involvement is likely to be affected by aspects of organizational culture. Job involvement is important because of well-established associations with a range of organizational outcome (Gray et al., 2003). It is also found that employees who are more involved in jobs are more satisfied with their jobs and can be expected to be more committed to their organization (ODriscoll and Randall, 1999). Employees who are highly committed towards their organization are more likely to stay than those who are relatively uncommitted (Tett and Meyer, 1993). Employee attachment is an important determinant in predicting organizational success. They describe attachment as having a strong affective component-the degree to which the customer or employee has a positive emotional connection with the organization. It is believed that the way employees are treated (HR practices) leads to a shared employee mind set. This, in turn, leads employees to behave in ways (employee practices) that contribute to a customer mindset that, in turn, contributes to a retention and attraction of customers and the resultant competitive advantage. Therefore, job satisfaction and job involvement are attitudes which are determined by individuals perceptions of their total job situations, including the physical work environment, the terms and conditions of their employment and the degree to which they are given autonomy, responsibility, authority and empowerment in their jobs (Kersley et al., 2006) Thus Organisations that promote and maintain commitment, job satisfaction and work-life balance satisfaction (wellbeing) of their employees through the implementation of high commitment HRM practices will benefit most by superior organisational outcomes and productivity through establishing long-term relationships of support and trust with employees. Organisations that do not pay attention to employee wellbeing at work will have in the long term to deal with the effects of less productive employees. Career satisfaction Career satisfaction was included since such satisfaction refers to overall affective reaction of individuals to their career (Greenhaus et al., 1990). It is reasonable to expect that high levels of career satisfaction would enhance organizational commitment since employees who are satisfied with their careers should perceive greater benefits in retaining membership in their organization than employees whose career have been less gratifying (Igbaria and Greenhaus, 1992). Motivation Herzberg et al.s (1959) two-factor theory of motivation stated that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are two separate entities caused by different facets of work and they were labeled as hygiene factors and motivators. Hygiene factors are categorized as extrinsic factors of job design that contribute to employee dissatisfaction if they are not met. Some examples are: supervision, working conditions, company policies, salary, and relations with co-workers. On the other hand motivators are intrinsic to the job and include achievement, development, responsibility and recognition. There is a very old discussion on whether hygiene factors do contribute to job satisfaction. (Furnham et al., 1999; Warr, 1987). Big five The big five model include five dimensions of personality traits. These traits are useful in determining the behaviour of individuals. These are: extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness to experience. Furnham (1997) found that extrovert persons are highly motivated by intrinsic factors. It has been seen that extrovert person would respond more quickly to rewards than introverts. There are other examples that shows how personality traits may affect attitudes is an individual openness to experiences and this allow them to be more innovative and thus more satisfied with their job. (Furnham et al., 2005). Conscientiousness is viewed in earlier findings and suggests that this trait is a constant predictor of job satisfaction. (Furnham et al., 2002). This influence can be explained as conscientious individuals are prone to greater level of intrinsic and extrinsic reward as they are well organized therefore continuously increasing job satisfaction. Managing Employee Negative Attitudes Managers can influence employees in having positive attitudes. Employees should understand behaviours so as to help them to change their attitudes. There should be the will to implement changes even if certain disagree with the idea. Moreover the organization must focus on opportunities rather than concentrating on maters that is not working. Like this negative attitudes can be controlled a to a certain extent. Constraints to achieving positive employee attitude It is said that everyone should have a positive attitude. In practice it is really difficult to maintain a positive attitude every time. Whenever a problem arises, change in attitude is obvious to such an extent that having negative attitude cannot be avoided. The lack of positive attitude is the root cause of tension, anxiety, demoralization, nervousness and depression. Now a day almost everybody is in tension. Employees are tensed because of job dissatisfaction. Conflicts Lack of communication Adaptation in the working environment

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