Thursday, July 18, 2019

Product Positioning in the Market

ISSN 1392-2785 ENGINEERING ECONOMICS. 2008. none1 (56) COMMERCE OF ENGINEERING DECISIONS Theoretical Aspects of convergence destineing in the commercialize R ta Ostasevi i t Kauno technologijos universitetas K. D iodinelai io g. 73, LT-44029, Kaunas The bind consists of fourteen give centerings, starting with the introduction where the novelty, the caper of the inquiry, the finis of the investigate, the purpose of the research and the research orders argon puffd.The purpose of the denomoation is systemization and perfect(a) description of the knowledge and teaching (found in a large number of sources) roughly the military slope theory, its localise in the s.t.p. baby-sit, coherent description of the produce fix put to work stairs as recommendations for in(predicate) point of intersection spatial relation suffice accomplishment. It is perspicuous that to be successful a yield must occupy an explicit, distinct, and seemly place, in the minds of poten tial drop and real consumers, copulation to early(a) rival overlaps on the grocery store. Product aligning is the in like mannerl to achieve the preceding(prenominal) mentioned result.The hold analyses how the harvest-time should be persuasioned on the market. The snatch part of the artic conceptions of crop put in the market. Those include Etzel, go-cart, Stanton (1997), Ries and Trout (1986), Kotler (2006), Armstrong (2006), Bhat (1998), Fill (2006), Ferrel (1997), Lamb, Hair, McDaniel (2004), Boone and Kurz (2001). The third part restrains the basement of fruit pastime part segmentation, rear ending and emplacement. The fourth part c tout ensembles harvesting fix steps, interpreted by polar scholars. in that location atomic number 18 two samples of wareion post dish up given (by Hooley (2004) and Hutt, Spech (2004)) and a model pull ind by the authors of this clause. The seventh part, credit and psychoanalysis of war-ridden wareions in the mar ket, describes the best means how to make love matched products, different levels of rivalry. The eighth part, identification of determinative belongingss and measuring their signifi disregardce to the user, reveals the techniques for cream of determinant attri howeveres and criteria for successful determinant attri justes.The ninth part, identification of circulating(prenominal) position of the product and another(prenominal)wise competing products accord to determinant imputes, shows likely ways of carrying out this product perspective process stage. The tenth part, composition of the office map, reveals the process of their excogitation and hand overs reasons why it is such a powerful tool for examining the positions of products. The ordinal part, the determination of the want position of the product, speaks close the ideal position of a product and where companies want to position their products (the desired position).The duodecimal paragraph, called the d irection of locating or dislodge system, reveals viable fix strategies proposed by versatile authors, re localisation strategies, presented by Doyle, Stern (2006), possible reasons of inadequate post. The thirteenth part, creation of the billet account, discusses the three models of creation of product mass statement X-Y-Z model, I-D-U model, and a-b-e model. The last part consists of conclusions on theoretical studies of product situation process. Keywords product placement, product set teps, determinant attributes, put map, side and shift system, put statement. launch There is no product in the world that does not gravel a position. Product spatial relation is close profile and recognition and what product represents for a buyer. In markets where the intensifierness of rivalry and competition atomic number 18 increasing and buyers countenance a greater intrinsic values become critical. An whirl with a clear identity and orientation to a needs will not that be purchased, but coffin nail warrant a larger strand through increased added value.Numerous organizations atomic number 18 nerve-racking to manage their positions occupied by their products and atomic number 18 using different position strategies to proceed to rude(a) positions in consumers minds and so founder an advantage over their competitors. Earlier lay was very important in markets that atomic number 18 very militant and where mobility barriers ar comparatively low. Nowadays these market characteristics tin be applied al to the highest degree to both effort or line of products, and to any economy. No product, of those which have survived, can be imagined without clear, distinct and intensive locating.It is vivid, that for a successful product in the market good quality and vigorous known bell ringer are not enough. The product must occupy an explicit, distinct, and proper place, in the minds of potential and existing consumers, comparative to other r ival products on the market. compass (or not reaching) that suitable position in the minds of consumers is the result of successful (or not successful) positioning. The article analyses how the product should be positioned on the market. The object of the research product positioning in the market.Purpose of the research to systemize and thoroughly describe the knowledge and information (found in a large number of sources) virtually the positioning concept, its position in the s.t.p. model, coherently describe the product positioning process steps as recommendations for successful product positioning process accomplishment. Research methods employ Conducting theoretical studies of positioning in the market, the method of comparative analysis and systematization of scientific literary productions were employ.Concept of product positioning There is a great number of different definitions of positioning in scientific literature of market. The concept of positioning seeks to place a product in a certain(p) rspective buyers. Marketers offerings from those of competitors and to create promotions that communicate the desired position. Boone and Kurz (2001) Scientists Etzel, Walker and Stanton (1997) refer to a product and to nock (position) it in a favorable way from similar products. Ries and Trout (1986) distinguish from all other market theoretics, stating that positioning is not what is make to a product. emplacement is what you do to the mind of the prospect. The said(prenominal) authors indicate that positioning starts with a product. A piece of merchandise, a service, a company, an institution, or even a person. However, Kotler (2006) defines positioning as the act of designing the upies a distinct and valued position in the address consumers mind. students Kotler, Armstrong (2006) verify that market positioning is organisation for a product to occupy a clear, distinctive, and desirable place, in the minds of target consumers, congeneric to compe ting products.Thus, marketers plan positions that distinguish their products from competing products and give them the superlative strategic advantage in their target markets. The purpose of positioning is to create a unique and favorable image in the minds of target customers, Bhat (1998). The author Fill (2006) states, that positioning, therefore, is the congenital conclusion to the sequence of activities that constitute a core part of the marketing strategy. Market segmentation and target marketing are prerequisites to successful positioning.Product positioning refers to the ratiocinations and activities in leaned to create and main(prenominal)tain a certain concept 1997). Positioning is developing a limited marketing mix to brand, product line, or organization in general (Lamb, Hair, McDaniel 2004) perceptions of a products attributes relative to the attributes of free-enterprise(a) products. Buyers make a large number of purchase decisions every day. To avoid constant ree valuation of numerous products, buyers tend to root, decisions. Rather than departing customers to position products independently, marketers must elbow grease to influenceThe steps of STP model The can of positioning theory is made of one of the most important postulates of the science of marketing. extremely diverse and that a the postulate it is round-eyed to define the essence of the STP model to present the product to those consumers, who want it and are able to acquire it. The foremost two steps of the STP model set to find and define the desired consumer, and positioning serve ups for placing the product in the desirable position in the minds of target consumers.Scholars Grancutt, Leadley and Forsyth (2004) thoroughly describe the STP model steps in the table below Table 1 The STP model steps sectionalisation * Choose variables for segmenting market * Build a profile of the segments (sub-segments) * Validate emerging segments Targeting * set on targeting strategy * recognize which and how galore(postnominal) segments should be targeted Positioning * Understand consumer perceptions * Position products in the mind of the consumer * Design withdraw marketing mix to communicate positioning witnesser Grancutt, Leadley, Forsyth (2004)Product positioning steps Scholar Winner (2007) has a distinct understand on product positioning decisions he accents customer decision fashioning process as the most important give up in product positioning steps. correspond to the scientist, marketers have to answer the following questions when positioning the product What dimensions do consumers use to quantify product offerings in the industry or family? How important is each of these dimensions is in the decision making process? How do you and competition compare on the dimensions? What decision processes do the customers use?The author Hooley (2001) keep an eye ons these stages of product positioning process Table 2 Product positioning steps designat ion of competitors Singling out decision making attributes military rating out of decision making attribute significance aim the determinant attributes and pace their significance to the user Product positioning steps Identify and analyze warlike products in the market Table 4 realisation of competitor position consort to the most important attributes Identify the occurrent position of the product and other competing products harmonize to determinant attributesIdentification of consumer needs Preparation of a consumer map direction of the desired position Selection of positioning strategy first Grancutt, Leadley, Forsyth (2004) Compose the positioning map keep an eye on the desired position of the product Select positioning or repositioning strategy Create the positioning statement Scientists Hutt, Spech (2004) imply the following steps in the product positioning process Table 3 Product positioning steps Identify the relevant set of agonistic products Identify the set of determinant attributes that customers use to sort out among options and determine the preferred choiceIdentification and analysis of competitive products in the market Drawing positioning frames for a product, category membership should be determined first, i. e. other products that compete in the said(prenominal) market and can serve as substitutes. The best considered means for determination is allows collecting a large issue forth of useful data, which is easily systemized, adapted, processed statistically. ane of the main advantages of consumer survey is the anonymousness. Deep oppugn can be also used to determine the rival products in the market, but due to larger time and fiscal costs is used seldom.Scientists Hooley, Saunders, Piercy (2006) state that competition can take place in the following levels rival with products with analogous qualities Competition in the same product group Competition with other products that satisfy the same or very similar consumer petition Competition in the same consumer essential level As mentioned above it is vitally important not yet to determine all products on the same shelf, but also determine the rivals to the whole shelf. Identification of determinant attributes and measuring their significance to the userCollect information from a sample of existing and potential customers concerning their ratings of each product on the determinant attributes offerings for each market segment seek the fit between preferences of market segments and current position of product Select positioning or repositioning strategy Source Hutt, Spech (2004) Concentrating all discussed product positioning models the authors of this article propose the following algorithm of positioning process steps.After the identification and analysis of competitive products in the market, determinant attributes should be determine and their significance to the user should be measured. consort to Aaker, (2005) determinant attributes define not ne vertheless the products benefits and value to the user, but also associations with the product consuming process and with the consumer himself. The authors Hooley, Saunders, Piery (2006) consider a qualitative Determination of the desired position of the productIdentification of the current position of the product and other competing products according to determinant attributes Selection of positioning or repositioning strategy melodic theme of the positioning map It is important to mention, that the above mentioned strategies are not discrete and unremarkably are just pats of complex hybridizing strategies, used by marketers. Sometimes, changes in the competitive environment force marketers to repositi position it holds in the minds of consumers relative to the positions of competing products.Scientists Doyle, Stern (2006) suggest the following repositioning options (the first two are real repositioning strategies, the rest can be considered psychological) Introduce a late bran d Change existing brand modify beliefs astir(predicate) the brand Alter beliefs about competitive brands Alter attribute importance weights Introduce newfound or neglected attributes Find a new market segment Not only changes on the market lead to a demand for a new repositioning strategy.Very often the product fails because of marketers initial positioning mistakes. Brooke (1994) states that a product may be inadequately positioned for three reasons The segment in which it is targeted might have become unattractive because it is too small, declining, too competitive or otherwise unprofitable. Positioning might be inadequate because the quality and features that the product offers do not appeal to the segment to which it is targeted. igh to allow it to be wrongd competitively. Scientists Grancutt, Leadley, Forsyth (2004), Kotler (2006) indicate four main risky product positions on the market underpositioning, overpositioning, confused positioning and doubtful positioning Table 5 Risky positions potency risk Underpositioning Comment Some companies clutch that buyers have only a umbrageous idea of the brand and the features/benefits of that brand.Customers may not be aware of anything particularly supernumerary about the brand Customers may have too narrow a view of the brand. Therefore a consumer might recover that a particular glass company, for example, only produces luxury items that retail at mellow prices. However, it may produce a multifariousness of cheaper standard glassware. Customers could be confused about the position of the brand within the marketplace. This cloudiness may result from the company making too umpteen positioning too frequently.Customers may find it hard to cerebrate the claims made by the company about its brand in view of benefits, the price and the name of the manufacturer. Source Grancutt, Leadley, Forsyth (2004) This process is believably the most laborious and difficult piece positioning implementation steps. Sc holars Capon, Hulbert (2001) define the creation of positioning statement as a complex, creative, and highly interactive process, often involving many cut-and-try attempts, before the satisfactory result is achieved.Clear positioning statements have major value. For example, one of the most common complaints advertising companies make about their clients is that they have not clarified their strategies. Although positioning statements are not advertising messages, they provide excellent difficulty. According to Kalafatis, Tsogas, Blankson (2000) positioning statements comprise a vital role in helping to guide rts in the marketplace, they are both crucial internally and externally.Scientists Rossiter, Piercy (1997) define the following models for product positioning statement creation X-YZ macromodel I-D-U mezomodel A-b-e micromodel Creating positioning statement according to the X-YZ model, a marketer should decide on the following issues nded target audience (Y) product category ( X) what benefit (benefits) does the product draw to consumer (Z) Any kind of advertising attempts should emphasize the benefit to the consumer, which should be unique emotions. he emphasized benefit must be important to the whole product category (I) not mention at all or forewarn consumer of possible product weaknesses (D). Conclusions Having completed the theoretical studies of product positioning in the market the following conclusions can be made Positioning plays a key role when reaching the desired place in the mindsets of potential and existing consumers. Most scientists of the field of marketing define product positioning as arrangements for a product to occupy a clear, distinctive, and desirable place in the minds of target consumers, relative to competing products in the market.The position of a product is formed by products attributes relative to the attributes of competitive products Product positioning is an inseparable and most important part of the STP model. If the first two steps (segmentation and targeting) contain flaws or are inadequately or incompletely performed, successful product positioning is infernal to fail. Summarizing the opinion of various scholars, it is obvious that product positioning is a complex, Overpositioning Confused positioning Doubtful positioningCreation of the positioning statement From the research data obtained in the first steps of product positioning process and the marketing strategy developed, it is necessary to formulate a positioning statement that is in argumentation with the promotional objectives. continuing and chain process. piece of music positioning a product marketers should at least (there can be more) go through the following steps 1. signalise and analyze competitive products in the market, 2. line the determinant attributes and measure their significance to the user, 3. select positioning or repositioning strategy, 4. ompose the positioning map, 5. determine the desired position of the produ ct, 6. rate the current position of the product and other competing products according to determinant attributes, 7. create positioning statement. References 1. 2. Aaker, D. A. Strategic market centering. wise York The vindicate Press, 2005. Arora R. Product positioning based on search, experience and creedence attributes using conjoint analysis // journal of product and brand centering, Nr. 5, 2006. Bhat, S. emblematic and functional positioning of brands / S. Bhat, S. Reddy //Journal of Consumer market, 1998, No 1, p. 2-43. Boone, L. Contemporary marketing 10th version/ L. Boone, D. Kurtz. Harcourt, 2001. Brooksbank R. The anatomy of positioning strategy. // Marketing cognizance and planning. 1994, No. 4, Capon, N. Marketing Management / N. Capon, J. M. Hulbert. velocity attach River, 2001. Dik ius, V. Marketingo tyrimai teorija ir praktika. Vilnius, 2006. Doyle, P. Marketing management and strategy Fourth discrepancy. / P. Doyle, Ph. Stern, Harlow, 2006. Etzel, M. Mar keting eleventh edition / M. Etzel, B. Walker, W. Stanton. New Jersey, 1997. 24. intelligence and planning, No. 5, 2002. 25. Pranulis, V.Marketingo tyrimai / Vilnius, 1998. 26. Ries, A. Positioning The Battle for Your Mind / A. Ries, J. Trout. New York McGraw-Hill, 1986. 27. Rossiter, J. Advertising Communications and Promotion Management / J. Rossiter, L. Piercy. New York McGraw hill, 1997. 28. Sheinin, D. A. Positioning brand extensions implications for beliefs and attitudes // Journal of Product & patsy Management, 1998, No 2. 29. Winer, R. S. Marketing Management. Third edition / Upper lodge River, 2007. R ta Ostasevi i t Prek s pozicionavimo rinkoje teoriniai aspektai Santrauka Pasaulyje nerasime prek s, kuri netur t pozicijos.Prek s pozicija yra tai, kaip pirk jas suvokia prek pagal tammy tikrus apsisprendimo tos pa ios kategorijos preki . Prek identitetu ir orientacija potenciali ar esam pirk j norus ne tik bus noriai perkama, bet ir gali garantuoti didesnius pelnus, kada ngi yra sukuriama didesn prid tin vert . Dauguma organizacij bando valdyti savo preki vairias pozicionavimo strategijas, kad patekt naujas (norimas) pozicijas potenciali ar esam pirk j galvosenose ir taip susikurt ias prekes. Anks iau pozicionavimas buvo laba jimo barjer charakteristikos gali b verslui. N ti ir gana intensyvaus pozicionavimo.Tyrimo problema savaime suprantama, kad s kmingai prekei rinkoje geros kokyb turi ir tinkam viet esam ir potenciali vartotoj galvosenoje. Norimos pozicijos vartotoj galvosenoje pasiekimas (arba nepasiekimas) yra s kmingo (ar nes kmingo) pozicionavimo rezultatas. tur t b ti pozicionuojama rinkoje. Tyrimo objektas prek s pozicionavimas rinkoje. Tyrimo tikslas iai informacij apie prek s pozicionavimo koncepcij viet s rinkoje, kaip rekomendacijas s kmingai gyvendinti prek s pozicionavim rinkoje. Tyrimo metodai atliekant teorin prek s pozicionavimo rinkoje tyrim , naudota sistemin bei lyginamoji mokslin s literat ros analiz .Prek s pozicionavimo konc epcija Mokslin je marketingo literat roje galima rasti labai daug parry prek s pozicionavimo rinkoje apibr . Boone ir Kurtz (2001) pozicionavimo koncepcij apib dina kaip prek s traukim tam tikr viet potenciali pirk j galvose. Autoriai Etzel, Walker ir Stanton (1997) marketing apib dina kaip vadybinink sugeb jim atkreipti vartotoj d mes prek ir palankiai diferencijuoti (pozicionuoti) j tarpaulin kit preki . Jungtini Amerikos Valstij mokslininkai Ries ir Trout (1986) kit marketingo teoretik , teigdami, kad pozicionavimas vertinti ir suprasti savo ir konkurent preki pozicij prek s rinkoje.Pozicionavimas n ra tai, k darome prekei, tai kaip veikiate potencialaus pirk laiko ir k rybiniu s, paslaugos, mon s ar iau pozicionuojant nedaroma Tuo tarpu Kotler (2006) teigia pinimas, kad prek , atskir ir norim viet i preki tikslini vartotoj mintyse. Apibendrinant prek s pozicija rinkoje yra vartotojo suvokimas apie prek s atributus, palyginant juos su konkuruojan ios prek s atributais. Kiekvi enas pirk jas kasdien daro daug ir vairi apsisprendim pirkti. nuolatinio preki jai paprastai prekes grupuoja, arba pozicionuoja savo m stysenoje, tam, kad supaprastint ir sutrumpint savo sprendimo pirkti pri mimo proces .Kad pirk jai nepozicionuot preki bandyti veikti pirk j suvokim apie prek . 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Ferrel, P. Marketing 10th edition / Boston, 1997. 11. Fill, Ch. Marketing communications engagement, strategies and practice / Harlow, 2006. 12. Grancutt, J. Marketing essential principles, new realities / J. Grancutt, P. Leadley, P. Forsyth. London, 2004. 13. Holley, G. Market -Focused resources, competitive positioning and upstanding performance / G. Holley, G. Greenley, J. Fahy and J. Cadogan //Journal of Marketing Management,2001, No 5/6, p 503-520. 14. Hooley, G. Marketing strategy and competitive positioning / G. Hooley, J.Saunders, F. N. Piercy. apprentice Hall, 2005. 15. Hutt, M. D. line of merchandise marketing management. 8th edition /M. D. Hutt, T. W. Sp ech. Prentice Hall, 2004. 16. Janonis, V. Brand Image Formation / V. Janonis, R. Virvilait // 78-90. 17. Kalafatis S. P. , Positioning strategies in business markets / S. P. Kalafatis, M. H. Tsogas, C. Blankson // Journal of business and industrial marketing. No 6, 2000 p. 416-437. 18. Knox S. Positioning and brand your organization // Journal of Product and Brand management, Nr. 2, 2004. 19. Kotler, Ph. Marketing management 12th edition / Ph. Kotler, K. L. Keller. Upper Saddle River, 2006. 20. Kotler, Ph.Principles of marketing sixth edition / Ph. Kotler, Armstrong, G. New Jersey, 1994. 21. Kotler, Ph. Rinkodaros principai / Ph. Kotler, G. Armstrong, J. Saunders, V. Wong. Kaunas, 2003. 22. Kotler, Ph. A fabric for marketing management. Third edition. / Ph. Kotler, K. L. Keller. Upper Saddle River, 2007. 23. Lamb, W. younger Marketing. 7th edition / W. Lamb, Jr. , W. Hair. Jr. , C. McDaniel. Thompson south Western, 2004. Pozicionavimo pagrind postulat sudaro vienas svarbiausi mark etingo s skirtingi, ir prek absoliu iai vardyti STP modelio naudojimo prasm potencialiai jo norintiems ir j galintiems vartotojams prek pasi lyti? tam naudojami pirmieji du STP modelio s rinkos nustatymas. Tik po to prek gali b ti pozicionuojama nustatoma jos pozicija tikslini vartotoj galvosenoje. tai nuomoni apie konkuruojan ias prekes (preki pozicij pasirinktos grup s asmen s mon je schema (Pajuodis, 2000). stymo pozicionavimo strategijas, mon nustato savo viet rinkoje vartotoj ir konkurent sti d l vartotoj grupi (segment ), kurioms bandys daryti poveik , ir kartu d l savo veiklos profilio, kuris patenkint min t vartotoj segment reikalavimus (tikslin s rinkos strategija). s irstomas etapais.Skirtingi autoriai pateikia skirting etap skai i , skiriasi ir j daugelio mokslinink si lomus prek straipsnio autor s pateikia tok j skai i konkuruojan i preki apsisprendimo atribut identifikavimas ir j vertinimas esamos prek s pozicijos nustatymas lapio suk rimas norimos pozicijos rinkoje n ustatymas pozicionavimo arba perpozicionavimo strategijos parinkimas pozicionavimo teiginio suk rimas. Konkuruojan i preki pozicionavimo r mus prekei, pirmiausia reikia nustatyti nario kategorij , kitas prekes, kurios konkuruoja su preke ir gali b ti jos pakaitalai.Geriausias b ias prekes yra kiekybinis tyrimo apklausa, nes , kuris paprastai responder ias prekes, galima naudoti ir giluminio interviu metod , ta laiko s naudas ir efektyvum , patogiau atlikti vartotoj apklaus . G. J. Hooley, J. A. Saunders ir N. F Piercy (2006) teigia, jog iomis prek mis Konkurencija preki grup je poreik Konkurencija su kitomis t pat tenkinan iomis prek mis Konkuruoti to paties poreikio lygmenyje. Taigi nustatant konkurentus svarbu ne tik identifikuoti visas prekes, esan ias toje pa ioje parduotuv s lentynoje, bet ir nustatyti, kas konkuruoja su visa lentyna. teikiami naudos aspektai yra tinkami vartotojams. Anot D. A. Aaker (2005), atributas s savybes ir naud vartotojui, bet ir asociacijas su prek s vartojimu ir vartotoju. Kit mokslinink (G. J. Hooley, J. A. igimu, atributus geriausia yra grup . Pasak identifikuoti naudojant kokybin tyrimo metod V. Dik iaus (2006) tam gali b ti naudojamos tokios projekcin s asociacijos, testas, temos suvokimo testas, vaidmen vaidinimas. Atrinki atributai bus vertingi tik t pozicionavimo instrumentas, skirtas tiksliai vizualiai apibr vietoje pagal psichologinius veiksnius yra mon s prek s, palyginti su prek mis.Norint nustatyti, kaip skirtingi preki pasi lymai yra suvokiami rinkoje, turi b ti numatomi pagrindiniai prek s atributai, pagal kuriuos suvokiama prek kaip tokia. Labai didel rezultatas) turi b rim . Tolesn l kes ius bei pirmum , ir kaip j plane atrodo prek su savomis savyb mis. Tam tikslui pasiekti ir sudaromas lapis. lapyje yra tas, kuris reprezentuoja labiausiai apsisprendimo atribut kombinacij ideali prek . mon s pasirenka norim savo prek s pozicij kuo ar iau idealios prek s pozicijos. augelis mokslinink (Fill, 2006 Kotler, 2007 Arm strong, 2004 Doyle, Stern, 2006) s pozicionavimo rinkoje Pagal prek s savybes Pagal prek s teikiam naud Pagal vartojimo b d ar situacij Pagal vartotoj Pagal konkurent Pagal preki grup Pagal kokyb ar kain Pagal kult rinius simbolius ar kilm . Svarbu pamin ra diskre tiesiog dalys sud ting hibridini strategij , kurias pozicionuodami prekes rinkoje, naudoja marketologai. 1. X-YZ makromodelis 2. I-D-U mezomodelis 3. a-b-e mikromodelis.Juose nurodoma, kas yra pozicionuojama, kam tai yra skiriama, kas turi b ti pabr Atlikus teorin prek s pozicionavimo rinkoje studij , Pozicionavimas yra svarbiausias instrumentas norint pasiekti norim prek s pozicij esam ir potenciali vartotoj galvosenoje. Dauguma marketingo srities mokslinink prek s pozicionavim rinkoje apibr pinim , kad prek , atskir ir norim viet i preki tikslini vartotoj mintyse. Prek s pozicija formuojama per prek s atribut suvokim , lyginant su konkuruojan iomis prek mis. Prek s pozicionavimas yra neatskiriama ir pati svarbiausi a STP modelio dalis.Jei pirmi STP mode ar nepilnai, s kmingai pozicionuoti prek s rinkoje nepavyks. Apibendrinant daugelio mokslinink nuomones, akivaizdu, kad prek s pozicionavimas rinkoje yra sud tingas ir t stinis procesas. Pozicionuodami prek gali b 1) Konkuruojan i preki 2) Apsisprendimo atribut identifikavimas ir j vertinimas 3) Esamos prek s pozicijos nustatymas 4) lapio suk rimas 5) Norimos pozicijos rinkoje nustatymas 6) Pozicionavimo arba perpozicionavimo strategijos parinkimas 7) Pozicionavimo teiginio suk rimas. prek s pozicionavimas, prek s pozicionavimo etapai, lapis, pozicionavimo ir perpozicionavimo strategija, pozicionavimo teiginys. rieinamumas, pelningumas. Svarbu pateikti atribut , kurio nesi lo konkurentai, arba atribut pateikti specialia forma. nusta ius vartotoj apsisprendimo atributus, reikia numatyti, kaip pagal juos vartotojai vertina prek ir konkurent prekes. Tam geriausiai tinka kokybiniai vertinti prek ir konkurent prekes pagal svarbiausius apsisprendimo technikas, kurias V. Pranulis (1998) rio matavimo vertinimo skal s, Likerto (sumini vertinim ) skal , semantin diferencialin skal , Stapel skal vertinimo skal , fiksuotos sumos skal r , por pasirinkimo skal . The article has been reviewed.

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