Wednesday, August 14, 2019
Analysis Study Of Colonial Discourse In Literature
Analysis Study Of Colonial Discourse In Literature Colonial discourse has been defined by many writers such as Diniz (1996:126) who points out hat Ã¢â¬Å"Colonial discourse usually refers to the writing which runs from five hundred years, through the days of European mercantile expansion, to our own time (1996:126). This definition suggests that the era of Colonialism in literature began in the 17th C. with the publication of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s The Tempest (1611-12). In this paper, however, the term is used to refer to the literature written in English, but confined to the century of British Colonialism and the decades of anti- or post colonial activity which followed. SaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Orientalism (1978) uses the concept of colonial discourse to re-order the study of colonialism. So it can be said to inaugurate a new kind of study of colonialism. SaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Orientalism examines how the East, including the Middle East, is represented in the history and the literature written by the West. The West always looks at the East as inferio r people without religion or morals. SaidÃ¢â¬â¢s projecttries to show how knowledge about the non-Europeans was part of the process of maintaining power over them. In short, Orientalism is primarily concerned with how the Orient was constructed by Western Literature and not with how such construction was received by colonial subjects. It examines the Western attitudes toward the East. Said concludes that the Western writers depict the Orient as Ã¢â¬Å"irrational,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"weekÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"feminised otherÃ¢â¬ . This depiction can be contrasted with the depiction of the West as Ã¢â¬Å"rationalÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"strongÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"masculineÃ¢â¬ . SaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Culture and Imperialism (1994) Colonial discourse is a concept popularized by Edward Said. In this paper, it refers also to the knowledge of Africa constructed by the West (colonial writers: as Defoe and Conrad) to bolster its colonizing interests, and the reaction of the East (colonized writers as: Achebe). C olonial discourse has not been the product of a certain age and it has attracted the attention of several writers and critics. Those celebrated authors as Conrad and Defoe created remarkable works out of the subject of Colonialism. Nowadays, Colonial discourse is one of the most current issues in literary criticism. 1.2. Life and Works of Defoe, Conrad and Achebe 1.2.1. Life and Works of Defoe: Danial Defoe was born about 1660 in London. His father, James Foe, was poor but hard working butcher. Defoe was not able to attend traditional institutions like Oxford and Cambridge because of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s opposition. Defoe is often considered the father of English novel. He is a master of simple prose and powerful narrative with a love of realistic detail. He is a great imaginative writer who creates one of the most familiar resonant myths of modern literature. He is influenced by the writings of Addison, Steel and Swift. DefoeÃ¢â¬â¢s important works are: Robinson Crusoe (1719), Mol l Flanders (1722), Capitan Singleton (1720) and The History of Peter the Great and Colonel Jack (1722). Defoe died in London on April 24, 1731. 1.2.2. Life and Works of Conrad Joseph Conrad was born in December 3, 1857. His childhood was affected by his homelandÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle for independence. He is a Polish novelist and short story writer. Conrad is one of the English languageÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest stylists. He becomes one of the greatest writers in the world. His major works include Heart of Darkness (1902), Lord Jim (1900), The Secret Agent (1907), Under the Western Eyes (1911) and Nostrome (1904). He died of heart failure on August 3, 1924.